Australia. History of Australia in a Nutshell.
The animated history of Australia in a nutshell. For centuries, rumors and legends are spreading among the traders, about the Terra Australis Incognita, unknown southern land. For Europeans, this is only a tale.
However, in the middle of the sixteenth century, a series of world maps are created, so-called ‘the maps from Dieppe,’ documenting the latest Portuguese explorations, on which a mysterious land is found, called ‘Le Grand Java.’
A few centuries later, the map will be considered by some as the evidence of discovering Australia by Portuguese.
Soon after, in sixteen-o-five a Dutch trader, Willem Janszoon, sets sails
from the Dutch East Indies to search for a new land. According to his plan, he arrives at an unknown destination and names it ‘Keer-Weer.’ As it turns out, later on, it is Australia, modern-day Cape York.
Since that moment, the sea route is frequented by the Dutch ships, which sometimes, sailing too far away are sighting the coast of Terra Australis.
The Dutch, bring Terra Australis to the world maps.
In sixteen-eighty-eight, William Dampier sets out on a voyage around the New Holland, returns and convinces the Admiralty to support another expedition.
In August seventeen-sixty-eight, HMS Bark the Endeavor, under the command of Captain James Cook, sets sails from England.
In the year seventeen-seventy arrives at the coast of New Holland and disembarks in several spots, including Botany Bay and Possession Island and gives the land a name – the New South Wales.
Cook’s expedition spreads the idea to colonize the new land, and with losing the thirteen colonies, the idea grows stronger.
During that time, many people in Britain live in poverty and the penalty for theft is high. Choosing between hunger, and thievery, many Brits are choosing the theft and simultaneously overpopulates the local prisons.
Officially to reduce the criminal population, and unofficially to make use of the human resources British Government sends out an expedition to create a penal colony and a bridgehead for further British colonization.
In seventeen-eighty-eight under the patronage of Lord Sydney, an expedition arrives at Botany Bay under the command of Arthur Philip, carrying seven hundred and thirty convicts and two hundred and fifty free men plus the crew.
Discovers a large bay, founds a settlement and names it after the patron of the expedition, Sydney.
British push forward, and in eighteen-twenty-seven Edmund Lockyer founds Albany in modern-day Western Australia. Britain claims the entire continent.
Along the increase of the free people, resistance grows, people do not want the penal status of the land. Finally, the British Parliament convinced, agrees to stop sending convicts to some of the colonies. Since eighteen-forty sending criminals will be gradually reduced, until the tenth of January eighteen-sixty-eight when the last shipment of convicts will reach the Western Australia.
In eighteen-twenty-five the population equals about sixty thousand people, to reach four hundred-fifty thousand in eighteen-fifty-one, to touch, during a gold rush, over a million and fifty thousand people, just ten years later.
Locally, Aborigines are oppressed.
At the beginning of colonization, Aborigines not knowing the concept of property, do no know what treaties with the Europeans can bring.
They are bringing disease and plagues decimating aborigines, and also the conquest of the natives pushed out from their homelands.
Until the nineteen-sixty-seven, Aborigines, will not be considered as equal inhabitants and citizens of their native land.
On the first of January nineteen-o-one, a dominion of the Commonwealth of Australia is proclaimed, and Sir Edmund Burton becomes the first prime minister of the federation.
Along with the outbreak of the First World War, thousands of young people on a distant continent, are at war which they do not understand.
Thousands of dead and wounded shock Australian public opinion, and make them realize the difference between the British and Australian interests.
The Second World War breaks out. Like two decades earlier, Australia joins war along with Britain. However, the British are being defeated in the far east. Japan quickly takes new territories. Hong Kong falls. Singapore falls. Australia is under threat. The United Kingdom put on the defensive in Europe and cannot provide support.
A turning point occurs. ANZAC asks the United States for protection. Along with its victories, the US takes the opportunity to pull Australia and New Zealand under its influence.
The war in Europe ends and soon after also on the Pacific, the new world order is brought to life.